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For this reason, we see that the permeability values of Quaternary alluvial units may differ (detailed soil classification maps according to sand, clay, and silt material size have not been prepared yet), but the presence of water-bearing capacity is seen from the existing wells and groundwater levels. In volcanic (andesite, dacite) and carbonate units, the permeability parameter comes to the fore rather than hydraulic conductivity. Also, fracture-crack systems and faults can cause high permeability and conductivity values in these units. In Table 3, these rock units were included in the classification by considering the characteristics of the altered and relatively low-thickness soil formations associated with the rock. In addition, when the relationship between seismicity and groundwater is analyzed based on rock units, there is no liquefaction in rock units. In this context, it seems that the Quaternary-aged alluvial deposits are the part that needs to be examined and paid attention to primarily for the province of İzmir.
Figure 7 shows the distribution of urbanization changes (red polygons) on geological data. According to this data, most new areas are located on alluvium, volcanic units, and carbonates. In addition, newly built settlements are concentrated in the region between the İzmir Fault (IF) and Karşıyaka-Bornova faults (KBF). Faults, fractures, and crack systems also affect the hydrological characteristics of the units in this area. Especially in the areas of volcanic and carbonate rock, fissure and crack systems may accelerate the infiltration from the surface in the soil and the rock units below. For this reason, it is thought that there is infiltration at medium-slow levels in carbonate and volcanic units, mainly due to the fracture and fissure systems seen in field studies.
Also, the slope is another parameter that critically influences the infiltration capacity but also the urban expansion, which is limited in the mountain region. Indeed, the surface flow is dominant in high-sloping lands, while in the areas with flat topography, infiltration occurs at a higher rate compared to the sloping lands. Furthermore, not only the degree of the slope but also the kind of slope (concave, convex, etc.) affects infiltration, demonstrating that these parameters should be analyzed through a comprehensive characterization of the site. However, when we look at the findings of our field studies and the spread of geological formations in the region, permeability parameters are controlled by fracture-crack systems rather than soil hydraulic conductivity, since more rock units are located in the sloped regions. 2b1af7f3a8