(A) Purification requires a multi-step protocol in order to remove contaminating nucleic acid. Following an initial purification by immobilized-metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), nucleic acids are effectively removed by PEI precipitation and ammonium sulfate fractionation. A final purification by a cationic exchange column yields pure (His6)-tagged Rev without nucleic acid contamination. (B) Devised one-step purification of (His6)-tagged Rev based on urea denaturation followed by successive on-column refolding. After urea denaturation, (His6)-tagged Rev is refolded on IMAC ensuring the removal of contaminants in the final preparation.
The P&G water purification technology is an amazing innovation that quickly turns 10 liters of dirty, potentially deadly water into clean and drinkable water.The packet was invented by P&G laundry scientists who were originally trying to separate dirt from used laundry water. They invented a breakthrough technology that can enable people anywhere in the world to purify dirty water in a simple, affordable and convenient way. The water purification technology was developed in collaboration with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and works in three ways: coagulation, flocculation, and disinfection.
Valley Water and local partners are working on the possibility of building a new purification center to produce 10 million gallons a day and the pipeline system that would replenish our groundwater basins and boost our drinking water supply.
Water Purification has a long and significant history in the City of Lorain. Our first municipal water plant and distribution system were placed into service in 1884. However, at the time water was simply pumped out of the Black River into the wooden pipes of the distribution system without treatment. A typhoid epidemic in 1893 was believed to have resulted from the lack of filtration. In 1896 construction of a water purification plant was authorized. Lorain became the first plant in the United States to start construction for the express purpose of filtering all the water to remove bacteria. The primary source for the potable water intake was switched to Lake Erie with the Black River intake as only a secondary source. Today, all water is drawn from a crib 26.5 feet deep and 2,800 feet out in Lake Erie from outside the breakwall.
Protein purification is fundamental to the study of protein function and involves a series of processes to express, enrich and purify a protein of interest from a complex mixture such as cell lysate. The fastest and most powerful method for this purpose is affinity purification. We offer a range of protein purification kits and reagents for purification of recombinant proteins using affinity tags such as HaloTag, GST- or His-tag. We also offer Magne® Protein G/A Beads, which provide an easy-to-use and rapid method for purification of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies from serum, ascites fluid and cell culture medium.
Protein purification is a fundamental step for analyzing individual proteins and protein complexes. Escherichia coli remains the first choice of many researchers for producing recombinant proteins due to ease of use, rapid cell growth and low cost of culture. Proteins expressed in E. coli can be purified in relatively high quantities, but these proteins, especially eukaryotic proteins, may not exhibit proper protein activity or folding. Cultured mammalian cells offer an alternative option for producing properly folded and functional mammalian proteins with appropriate post-translational modifications.
To simplify purification, affinity purification tags can be fused to a recombinant protein of interest. Common fusion tags are polypeptides, small proteins or enzymes added to the N- or C-terminus of a recombinant protein. The first step in purification of a recombinant protein is the preparation of the cell lysate or supernatant. For secreted proteins, minimal supernatant preparation is required, followed by selective binding, washing and elution of the purified protein. After purification the protein may be cleaved with a protease to remove the affinity tag.
His-tag purification uses the purification technique of immobilized metal affinity chromatography, or IMAC. In this technique, transition metal ions are immobilized on a resin matrix using a chelating agent such as iminodiacetic acid. The most common ion for his-tag purification of a recombinant protein is Ni2+, though Co2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ are also used. The his-tag has a high affinity for these metal ions and binds strongly to the IMAC column. Most other proteins in the lysate will not bind to the resin, or bind only weakly. The use of a his-tag and IMAC can often provide relatively pure recombinant protein directly from a crude lysate.
Ni2+ is most commonly used for his-tag purification since it gives a high yield. Using Co2+ can give higher purity but with a lower yield. Bio-Rad has his-tag resins and his-tag purification kits that are precharged with Ni2+ for fast, easy his-tag protein purification. Uncharged resins and kits that can be charged with Co2+ or other divalent or trivalent metal ions are also available. Uncharged kits give users the option of trying different metals to determine if one gives higher purity or yield for a particular his-tagged recombinant protein.
For his-tag purification, a longer his-tag or two hexahistidine tags provides a stronger affinity for the matrix. As the number of histidine residues increases, the elution buffer requires a higher concentration of imidazole to remove bound proteins from the column. Stronger binding can be an advantage when the crude protein mixture contains unwanted proteins that have a high affinity for the charged IMAC resin. Most nonrecombinant proteins bind more weakly than a long string of histidines and so elute at a lower concentration of imidazole.
When preparing crude lysates for his-tagged protein purification, often one or more detergent or denaturing or reducing agent must be included in the lysis buffer. All Bio-Rad his-tag protein purification kits are compatible with all common types of denaturing and reducing agents and detergents. There is no effect on binding to or elution from the IMAC resin in the presence of these compounds.
The Bio-Rad range of his-tag purification kits, columns, and media are optimized for high levels of purification at fast flow rates. Due to the very low levels of metal ion leakage from our affinity media, there is no problem with metal ion contamination of samples when using a Bio-Rad his-tag purification kit or column. All resins are stable at low pH, compatible with detergents and both denaturing and reducing agents, have high mechanical strength, and can be used at fast flow rates.
Zymo Research offers an assortment of DNA purification kits in different scales and formats that are capable of purifying DNA from a variety of sample types. All our DNA purification kits recover DNA that is suitable for the most sensitive molecular biology techniques, including Next Generation Sequencing and PCR. Use the table below to find the right DNA purification kit for you.
In order to drink the water, you should be prepared to treat it. There are numerousmethods of water purification, described below in order of effectiveness. Remember,however, that infections can also be spread through poor personal hygiene, something thatpurifying your water won’t prevent.
There are two types of chemical treatment: those using iodine and those using chlorine.There are a variety of products on the market, so follow the directions on the bottle. Beadvised that many of the tablets have an expiration date and become ineffective after thatpoint. Also, once the bottle has been opened, the tablets must be used within a certainperiod. When in doubt, buy a new bottle. Remember that chemical purification methods mayonly be partially effective, depending on the water temperature.
Saskatchewan is now officially home to the largest helium purification facility in Canada.Located near Battle Creek in the province's southwest, the new $32 million facility, owned and operated by North American Helium Inc. (NAH), is expected to produce more than 50 million cubic feet per year of purified helium for commercial sale. For context, that would be enough to fill approximately 400,000 party balloons a day.Helium is a highly desirable commodity used in medical research, semiconductor manufacturing, space exploration, fibre optics, and advancements in nuclear power generation."This facility will create and support local jobs, enable the province to scale up helium production, and grow export capacity," Energy and Resources Minister Bronwyn Eyre said. "It will also further diversify our natural resource sector and position Saskatchewan as a leading supplier of a critical element that the world needs."Helium is included on both the Canadian and American lists of critical minerals, considered necessary for the modern economy, emerging technologies or which face supply chain risks. Prices for helium have risen by more than 160 per cent since 2017, as a result of increased global demand and shortage of supply. Canada currently has the fifth-largest helium resources in the world, with significant underground reserves in Saskatchewan.
"This project is another example of the resiliency of our economy and another step toward economic recovery and a return to growth," Cypress Hills MLA Doug Steele said. "Saskatchewan has the natural resources the world needs, and it is important we continue providing a competitive investment environment to attract projects such as this that will create jobs in our communities, grow our economy and build a strong Saskatchewan."The NAH helium purification project was approved for the province's Oil and Gas Processing Investment Incentive (OGPII) program, which provides new or expanded gas processing and liquefaction facilities with a 15 per cent transferrable royalty credit, based on capital expenditures."We are very excited to start up our second helium plant in Saskatchewan ahead of schedule and anticipate running a significant helium exploration and development program into the future," NAH President and Chief Operating Officer Marlon McDougall said."This is an important milestone in the development of a new source of reliable green helium supply, and long-term sustainable helium production industry in Saskatchewan," NAH Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Nicholas Snyder said. "Our company will continue working with our partners and relevant stakeholders to ensure that we can grow our nitrogen-based helium production as a replacement for declining legacy sources of hydrocarbon-linked helium supplies in the lower 48 states."Saskatchewan is one of the few jurisdictions in the world that can support the drilling of dedicated helium wells, rather than as a byproduct of hydrocarbon production. This makes helium production significantly more environmentally friendly in Saskatchewan than in competing jurisdictions.With the NAH facility, there are now nine active helium wells in the province and 24 in the drilling process. The Government of Saskatchewan expects the number of helium wells will eventually surpass 100. 2b1af7f3a8